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روانپزشکی روانشناسی - عقب ماتدگی ذهنی
 

عقب ماتدگی ذهنی

نوشته شده توسط :نیلوفر باوفا
چهارشنبه 1 دی 1389-12:43 ق.ظ

                       

                                           

برخی بیماری ها نورولوژیک که  از نظر روانشناسی اهمیت دارند

 

عقب ماندگی ذهنی

عقب ماندگی یعنی تاخیر در مراحل رشد و تکامل جسمی و ذهنی ، به نحوی که در فعالیتهای معمول و متناسب با سن طفل ایجاد اختلال نماید و به علل گوناگونی می تواند بروز کند .

علل عقب ماندگی ذهنی

1-      عفونت مغزی : در دوران جنینی ( بخصوص سرخچه ، توکسوپلاسموز ، ویروس سیتو مگالیک . یا پس از تولد ( آنسفالیتها و مننژیت ها )

2-      مسمومیت مغزی : در دوران چنینی یا پس از تولد ،

3-      ضایعات فیزیک مغزی : قبل از تولد ، موقع تولد یا پس از تولد

4-      خفگی هنگام تولد

5-      ضایعات متابولیک : اختلال متابولیسم مواد آلی ، اختلال غدد داخلی بخصوص تیروئید

6-      اختلالات تغذای

7-      ضایعات تومورال مغزی

8-      اختلالات مغزی مادرزادی مغز

9-      علل اجتماعی – خانوادگی و روانی

 

عواملی که باعث افزایش احتمال عقب ماندگی می شوند عبارتند از :

الف - والدین : 1- خویشاوندی والدین ، 2- سن مادر ( کمتر از 16 سال و بیشتر 35 سال ) . 3- مادرانی که سابقه سقط جنین و مرگ جنین دارند  4- مادرانی که دچار بیماری هستند ( افزایش فشار خون ، نفریت ،  دیابت ، فلبیت ، بیماریهای تیروئید ، اعتیاد به مواد مخدر ، توکسو پلاسموز ، عقب ماندگی ذهنی ، توکسمی حاملگی ) .

 

ب - در نوزادان 1- نوزادانی که زوتر از موعد متولد می شوند 2- دو قلوها و چند قلوها 3- نوزادانی که هنگام تولد کبودی داشته اند 4 – تولد با پا یا باسن یا پهلو 5- نوزادانی که برای تولد احتیاج به استفاده از فورسپس داشته اند 6- نوزادانی که احتیاج به انکوباتور یا اکسیژن داشته اند . 7- نوزادانی که پس از تولد اشکال در گریه کردن یا مکیدن داشته اند . 9- تشنج پس از تولد .





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